水稻秸秆直接还田技术配套机具研究进展  

Study on the Technology and Equipment of Rice Straw Direct Returning

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作  者:孙妮娜 王晓燕 李洪文 王将 姜灏 谭丁炀 Sun Nina;Wang Xiaoyan;Li Hongwen;Wang Jiang;Jiang Hao;Tan Dingyang;College of Engineering,China Agricultural University;Rice Office of Beidahuang Qixing Farm

机构地区:中国农业大学工学院 黑龙江省七星农场水稻办

出  处:《农机化研究》2019年第7期1-7,共7页Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research

基  金:“十三五”国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300909-03);教育部创新团队发展计划项目(IRT13039)

摘  要:分析了东北一熟区、水旱轮作稻区、双季稻区三大稻区的水稻秸秆直接还田配套机具的研究进展,从水稻收获、耕整地两个作业环节指出各区域实施秸秆还田过程中存在的技术难点及待解决问题。目前,长江中下游地区的水稻秸秆直接还田配套机具已经基本满足农艺要求;东北一熟区的秸秆直接还田仍存在很多问题,由于秸秆韧性强、秸秆量大,造成秸秆粉碎抛撒不均匀问题,导致后期整地困难及春季泡田搅浆后秸秆漂浮严重问题,仍是亟需解决的技术难题;南方双季稻及西南稻区由于地势限制导致的机收水平低问题,也同样限制了水稻秸秆直接还田技术的发展。在此基础上,提出了我国水稻秸秆直接还田技术配套机具发展建议,以期为下一步研究解决稻田秸秆还田关键机具问题提供参考。This paper studied the rice direct returning equipment of northeast single-cropping area,paddy-upland rotation area and double-cropping paddy area,which analyzed technical difficulties and existing problems in each area from two processes of rice harvesting and soil preparation. At present,the supporting equipment of rice straw direct returning technology has basically met the agronomic requirements in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river. There are still a lot of problems in northeast single-cropping area. Due to the strong toughness and the large amount of straw,the straw was crushed and dispersed unevenly,which led to difficult land preparation and serious straw floating problems.The low levels of harvesting limit the rice straw returning production in China,which was caused by the topography restriction in the southern double cropping rice and the southwest rice region. On this basis,the suggestions are proposed for the development of the rice straw direct returning equipment,to provide reference for the next study on solving the problems of supporting equipment for straw returning paddy fields.

关 键 词:水稻 秸秆直接还田技术 配套机具 技术难点 

分 类 号:S224[农业科学—农业机械化工程;农业科学—农业工程]

 

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