红壤油茶幼林地间种绿肥牧草的培肥效应  

Fertilization effects of inter-planting green manure and forage grass in Camellia oleifera young plantation in hilly red soil region

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作  者:谢庭生[1] 李红[1] 王芳[1] 高霞 蒋光明 占强[1] XIE Tingsheng;LI Hong;WANG Fang;GAO Xia;JIANG Guangming;ZHAN Qiang(Hunan Institute of Economic Geography,Changsha 410004,Hunan,China;Dao County AnimalHusbandry and Aquatic Products Bureau,Yongzhou 425300,Hunan,China)

机构地区:[1]湖南省经济地理研究所,湖南长沙410004 [2]道县畜牧水产局,湖南永州425300

出  处:《中南林业科技大学学报》2019年第3期1-9,共9页Journal of Central South Forestry University

基  金:国家自然科学基金项目(2014-41471234);湖南省科技支撑计划项目(2009JT4013).

摘  要:培肥减流是南方丘陵红壤地区新垦油茶幼林地需要解决的两大任务,林下间种是解决这两大问题普遍采用的种植模式,它既能提高造林成活率,又能促进幼树生长。在油茶幼林地间种的基础上,采用最新科研成果,合理组装间种技术,以期达到最大化培肥减流的目的。为此,在湖南省衡南县油子岭低山丘陵区选取全垦成梯的红壤油茶幼林地为研究对象,设间种夏季、冬季绿肥、(牧草)+新技术应用(代号iswf+nt)、间种夏季冬季绿肥(牧草)(代号iswf)、间种冬季绿肥(代号iwf)、清耕(代号CK)等4个处理,采用田间小区实验,研究间种绿肥(牧草)的培肥减流效应。结果表明:1)间种3a后,iswf+nt、iswf、iwf处理0~20cm土层有机质含量为31.67、21.75、15.32g/kg,比清耕(8.97g/kg)提高22.7、12.78、6.35g/kg,分别提高了253.1%、142.5%、70.8%,差异极显著。2)间种3a后,iswf+nt、iswf、iwf处理比清耕减流109.9%、56.1%、20.6%,减少了136.9%、66.2%、29.2%;因而,0~20cm土层土壤容重均值iswf+nt、iswf、iwf处理分别比CK处理减少0.12、0.05、0.02g/cm3,减少7.9%、3.1%、1.2%,其中,iswf+nt处理差异显著。3)间种3a后,iswf+nt处理比清耕,全氮、全磷、速效氮、速效磷流失量分别减少80.9%、75.1%、82.7%、81.6%;0~20cm土层,无论是有机质、全量养分还是速效养分都属“丰富级”(我国土壤养分分级标准),由试验前的“严重缺乏”连跨3级(缺乏级、轻度缺乏级、基本不缺级)。4)间种绿肥(牧草)是一个费省效宏的技术,iswf+nt处理改种一季绿肥(牧草)为种两季绿肥(牧草)、改种单一绿肥(牧草)品种为种绿肥(牧草)品种组合、改部分使用新技术为全面使用新技术,是该技术的3个创新点,也是这种新方法的技术支撑。Fertilization and runoff reduction are two major tasks to be solved in the newly cultivated young Camellia oleifera plantation in hilly red soil region of southern China.Inter-planting under forest is a common cropping pattern to solve these two tasks,it can not only increase the survival rate of afforestation,but also promote the growth of young trees.This study intends to use the latest scientific research achievements and rationally assemble intercropping techniques on the basis of the inter-specific cultivation,so as to maximize the purpose of raising fertilizer and reducing flow.For this purpose,taking C.oleifera young forest which located in hilly red soil region,Yiliziling,Hengnan county,Hunan province,as the tested forestland,setting four treatments such as:the interplanting summer (winter) green fertilizer (grazing)+ new technology application (code iswf+nt ),interplanting summer and winter green manure (grass)(code iswf),intercropping winter green manure (code iwf),clear farming (code CK),and adopting field plot test method,the effects of fostering fertility and reducing runoff by intercropping green manure(pasture) were to investigated.The results show that:1) After inter-planting three years,the organic matter contents of 0-20 cm soil layer treated with iswf + nt,iswf and IWF were 31.67,21.75 and 15.32 g/kg respectively,which was 22.7,12.78 and 6.35 g/kg higher than that treated with clean tillage (8.97 g/kg),253.1%,142.5% and 70.8% higher than that of untreated tillage (8.97 g/kg),the differences among different treatments were extremely significant.2) After inter-planting three years,compared with CK,iswf + nt,iswf and IWF reduced runoff 109.9%,56.1%,20.6%,sand 136.9%,66.2% and 29.2%;thus,the mean soil bulk density of 0-20 cm soil layer,iswf+nt,iswf,iwf treatment were 0.12,0.05,0.02 g/cm3 lower than CK treatment,the percentage were 7.9%,3.1%,1.2% lower than CK,among them,Iswf+nt treatment had the significant difference.3) After inter-planting three years,the loss amounts of total nitrogen,total phos

关 键 词:油茶幼林 林地间种绿肥(牧草) 红壤丘岗区 培肥减流效应 湖南省衡南县 

分 类 号:S794.4[农业科学—林木遗传育种;农业科学—林学] S157.2

 

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