国家保护义务视角下的顺风车规制——以35份地方规范性文件为分析对象  

Ridesharing Regulation from the Perspective of State Protection Obligation:Taking 35 Local Normative Documents as Analysis Objects

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作  者:查云飞 Zha Yun-fei

机构地区:[1]中南财经政法大学法学院

出  处:《苏州大学学报:法学版》2019年第1期9-17,共9页Journal of Soochow University Engineering Science Edition (Bimonthly)

基  金:国家社会科学基金特别委托项目“大数据治国战略研究”(项目编号:15@ZH012);中南财经政法大学中长期重点项目“司法改革视阈下的裁判机制和案例法研究”(项目编号:412/31510000032)的阶段性成果。

摘  要:与网约车不同,平台化的顺风车业务并非经营性客运,无须设定行政许可对其准入条件进行规制。但顺风车平台在与驾驶员、合乘者之间构建民事法律关系时,仍呈现出一定的权力距差,平台通过格式条款确定了权利义务,无论作为顺风车信息服务使用主体还是作为客运服务合同和居间合同订立者,驾驶员、合乘者都须受平台格式条款的约束。顺风车平台一方面通过抽取信息中介费用营利,另一方面将顺风车业务与网约车业务整合以达成规模效应,在利益驱动之下容易忽视用户的权利。国家有义务在私主体之间势力不均衡时提供主动保护,该种保护可通过基本权的客观价值得到证立,但应注意保护不足与保护过度的问题,各地方现有规定普遍存在这两方面的瑕疵。Different from online ride-hailing,platform-based ridesharing service is not commercial passenger transport,and it is not necessary to regulate its entry through licensing.However,when civil legal relations are formed between drivers and passengers on the platform,a certain difference on powers still exists.The platform determines the rights and obligations through standard terms,to which the drivers as users of information service and the passengers as a party enjoying the service are subject.On the one hand,ridesharing platform makes profits by extracting information intermediary fees;on the other hand,it integrates ridesharing business and ride-hailing business to achieve scale effect.Driven by interests,it is easy to ignore users’rights.The state has the obligation to provide active protection when the power between private subjects is unbalanced,which can be proved by the objective value of basic rights.However,attention should be paid to the problems of insufficient and excessive protection,which are common defects in existing regulations in various places.

关 键 词:顺风车 国家保护义务 保护不足禁止 保护过度禁止 

分 类 号:D922.12[政治法律—军事法学;政治法律—宪法学与行政法学;政治法律—法学]

 

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