南瓜砧木嫁接对低温下西瓜幼苗耐冷性、光合作用及抗逆基因表达的影响  

Effects of pumpkin rootstock grafting on cold tolerance,photosynthesis and expression of stress-tolerance genes of watermelon seedlings under chilling stress

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作  者:鲁军阳 高敏 卫楠楠 程菲[1] 别之龙[1] LU Junyang;GAO Min;WEI Nannan;CHENG Fei;BIE Zhilong(Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology,Ministry of Education/College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences,Huazhong Agricultural University,Wuhan 430070,China)

机构地区:[1]华中农业大学园艺林学学院/园艺植物生物学教育部重点实验室,武汉430070

出  处:《华中农业大学学报》2019年第2期55-64,共10页Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University

基  金:国家自然科学基金项目(31501783);国家西甜瓜产业技术体系项目(CARS-25);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201008).

摘  要:为阐明南瓜砧木嫁接诱导西瓜幼苗产生低温抗性的适应机制,研究了南瓜砧木'青研1号'嫁接对低温10℃/5℃(昼/夜)胁迫下西瓜自交系'97103'幼苗生长、叶绿素荧光、光合气体交换、卡尔文循环和抗逆相关基因表达的影响。结果表明:低温胁迫下西瓜自嫁苗PSⅡ最大量子产量(Fv/Fm)等叶绿素荧光参数与常温对照相比显著下降。低温处理5d后,西瓜自嫁苗和南瓜砧木嫁接苗PSⅡ有效量子产量(ΦPSⅡ)与常温对照相比分别下降92.9%和59.2%。南瓜砧木嫁接有效延缓了低温引起的PSⅡ损伤,同时促进卡尔文循环关键基因核酮糖-1,5-二磷酸羧化/加氧酶(Rubisco)大亚基基因(rbcL)、3-磷酸甘油酸激酶基因(PGK)、磷酸核酮糖激酶基因(PRK)、果糖1,6-二磷酸激酶基因(FBPase)转录水平显著增加,保持低温下较高水平的CO2同化速率(Asat)。此外,南瓜砧木嫁接促使低温下西瓜叶片蒸腾速率下降,减缓叶片萎蔫、皱缩,同时诱导谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPX)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(tAPX)、谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)和脱水蛋白(ERD10)等9个抗逆相关酶基因上调表达,增强了植株抗氧化能力。低温处理5d后,西瓜自嫁苗和南瓜砧木嫁接苗冷害指数分别为61.1%和22.2%,全株干质量与对照相比分别下降61.0%和33.2%。南瓜砧木嫁接通过调节蒸腾作用,减少水分散失,促进卡尔文循环关键基因和抗逆相关基因表达,减缓PSⅡ光抑制,减轻膜脂过氧化损伤,增强西瓜对低温的适应能力。The effects of pumpkin rootstock('Qingyan No.1')grafting on growth,chlorophyll fluorescence,photosynthetic gas exchange,expression of Calvin cycle and stress-tolerance genes of watermelon('97103')seedlings under chilling stress(10℃/5℃)were studied to clarify the mechanism of photosynthetic adaptation involved in chilling tolerance in pumpkin rootstock-grafted watermelon seedlings.The results showed that the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter such as maximum quantum yield of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm)in self-grafted watermelon decreased significantly under chilling stress in comparison with control.After 5 days of chilling stress,the effective quantum yield of PSⅡ(ΦPSII)in self-grafted watermelon seedlings and pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings decreased by 92.9%and 59.2%compared with the control.Pumpkin rootstock grafting effectively delayed the damage of PSⅡinduced by chilling and promoted the expression of key genes including Rubisco large subunit(rbcL),glycerate-3-phosphate kinase(PGK),phosphoribulose kinase(PRK),and Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase(FBPase)involved in Calvin cycle.A higher CO2 assimilation rate(A sat)in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings under chilling stress was observed.which was attributed to the enhanced expression of 9 stress-tolerance genes including GPX,tAPX,GR,and ERD10.After 5 days of chilling treatment,the chilling injury index of self-grafted watermelon seedlings and pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings were 61.1%and 22.2%,respectively.The whole plant dry weight was decreased by 61.0%and 33.2%,respectively compared with the control.It is indicated that pumpkin rootstock grafting reduces the water loss by regulating transpiration,up-regulates the expression of key genes involved in Calvin cycle and stress-tolerance,thus alleviates photoinhibition of PSⅡand reduces the damage of membrane lipid peroxidation to enhance the adaptability of watermelon under chilling stress.

关 键 词:西瓜 南瓜砧木 嫁接 低温胁迫 光合作用 叶绿素荧光参数 抗逆基因 

分 类 号:S651.604.3[农业科学—果树学;农业科学—园艺学]

 

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